The Nearby Evolved Stars Survey II: Constructing a volume-limited sample and first results from the James Clerk Maxwell Telescope

Scicluna, P. et al, April 2022. ADS: 2022MNRAS.512.1091S

The Nearby Evolved Stars Survey (NESS) is a volume-complete sample of ~850 Galactic evolved stars within 3 kpc at (sub-)mm wavelengths, observed in the CO J = (2-1) and (3-2) rotational lines, and the sub-mm continuum, using the James Clark Maxwell Telescope and Atacama Pathfinder Experiment. NESS consists of five tiers, based on distances and dust-production rate (DPR). We define a new metric for estimating the distances to evolved stars and compare its results to Gaia EDR3. Replicating other studies, the most-evolved, highly enshrouded objects in the Galactic Plane dominate the dust returned by our sources, and we initially estimate a total DPR of 4.7 × 10-5 M yr-1 from our sample. Our sub-mm fluxes are systematically higher and spectral indices are typically shallower than dust models typically predict. The 450/850 $\mu$m spectral indices are consistent with the blackbody Rayleigh-Jeans regime, suggesting a large fraction of evolved stars have unexpectedly large envelopes of cold dust.

The nearby evolved stars survey - I. JCMT/SCUBA-2 submillimetre detection of the detached shell of U Antliae

Dharmawardena, Thavisha E. et al, October 2019. ADS: 2019MNRAS.489.3218D

We present the highest resolution single-dish submillimetre observations of the detached shell source U Antliae to date. The observations were obtained at 450 and 850 {μ}m with SCUBA-2 instrument on the James Clerk Maxwell Telescope as part of the Nearby Evolved Stars Survey. The emission at 850 {μ}m peaks at 40 arcsec with hints of a second peak seen at ∼20 arcsec. The emission can be traced out to a radius of 56 arcsec at a 3σ level. The outer peak observed at 850 {μ}m aligns well with the peak observed at Herschel/PACS wavelengths. With the help of spectral energy distribution fitting and radiative transfer calculations of multiple-shell models for the circumstellar envelope, we explore the various shell structures and the variation of grain sizes along the in the circumstellar envelope. We determine a total shell dust mass of (2.0 ± 0.3) × 10-5 M and established that the thermal pulse that gave rise to the detached shell occurred 3500 ± 500 yr ago.

Extended Dust Emission from Nearby Evolved Stars

Dharmawardena, Thavisha E. et al, August 2018. ADS: 2018MNRAS.479..536D

We present James Clerk Maxwell Telescope Sub-millimetre Common-User Bolometer Array 2 (SCUBA-2) 450 and 850 {μ} m observations of 14 asymptotic giant branch stars (9 O-rich, 4 C-rich, and 1 S-type) and one red supergiant in the solar neighbourhood. We combine these observations with Herschel/PACS observations at 70 and 160 {μ} m and obtain azimuthally averaged surface-brightness profiles and their point spread function-subtracted residuals. The extent of the SCUBA-2 850 {μ} m emission ranges from 0.01 to 0.16 pc with an average of ̃40 per cent of the total flux being emitted from the extended component. By fitting a modified blackbody to the four-point spectral energy distribution at each point along the residual profile we derive the temperature (T), spectral index of dust emissivity (β), and dust column density (Σ) as a function of radius. For all the sources, the density profile deviates significantly from what is expected for a constant mass-loss rate, showing that all the sources have undergone variations in mass loss during this evolutionary phase. In combination with results from CO line emission, we determined the dust-to-gas mass ratio for all the sources in our sample. We find that, when sources are grouped according to their chemistry, the resulting average dust-to-gas ratios are consistent with the respective canonical values. However, we see a range of values with significant scatter which indicate the importance of including spatial information when deriving these numbers.